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» » Legal Perspectives with Fidelicy Nyamukondiwa




Corporal punishment: Are parents, teachers allowed to whip children?
With effect from 03 April 2019, judicial corporal punishment on male juveniles is no longer permissible in Zimbabwe. This follows a far reaching Constitutional Court judgment in the case of S v Chokuramba CCZ 10/19.  The apex court is however yet to make a determination on the constitutionality of administering corporal punishment in school and in the home. This article unpacks the legal position regarding corporal punishment in Zimbabwe.

What is corporal punishment?
The UN Committee on the Rights of the Child defines corporal punishment as Any punishment in which physical force is used and intended to cause some degree of pain
or discomfort, however light.’ It follows therefore that any form of kicking, smacking, slapping, spanking, pinching or the doing of anything which causes bodily harm is corporal punishment.

History of corporal punishment in Zimbabwe.
In 1987 and in S v Ncube and Ors 1987 (2) ZLR 246 (S), the Supreme court sitting as a Constitutional Court held that administering corporal punishment upon adult male convicts was unconstitutional. In 1989 the Supreme Court similarly declared judicial corporal punishment upon male juveniles unconstitutional in the case of S v A Juvenile 1989 (2) ZLR 61 (S)
In 1990, the then Constitution outlawed corporal punishment upon adult male offenders but overturned the decision in S v A Juvenile by inserting a provision which permits judicial corporal punishment upon male juveniles. The same year, section 353 of the Criminal Procedure and Evidence Act [Chapter 9:07] (hereinafter CPEA) was enacted to reintroduce corporal punishment on male juvenile offenders. In 2006, the Criminal Law (Codification and Reform) Act, Chapter 9:23 (hereinafter the Code) brought in provisions which permits the administering of ‘moderate corporal punishment’ by parents at home and by school authorities.
In 2013, the current Constitution came into effect. Section 53 of the Constitution enshrines the protection of the fundamental right of any person not to be subjected to all forms of physical or psychological torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

The Chokuramba Case
In S v Chokuramba HH-718/14 the High Court made an order declaring judicial corporal punishment on male juveniles unconstitutional because it violates section 353 of the CPEA. An order of constitutional invalidity made by the High Court or any other court has no force of law until confirmed by the Con-Court.  As a result of the foregoing, Muremba J referred the case to the Con-Court for possible confirmation. On 3 April 2019, the Con-Court subsequently confirmed the finding of the High Court and declared judicial corporal punishment unconstitutional.

Corporal punishment in the home or school
.
On 03 March 2017, Mangota J sitting as a High Court in Pfungwa and Anor v Headmistress Belvedere Junior Primary School and Ors HH 148/17 made an order to the effect that the imposition of corporal punishment on children at home or school violates children’s rights set out in sections 51, 53 and 81 of the Constitution. The High Court order is still awaiting confirmation by the ConCourt. Corporal punishment upon children at home and at school is therefore still legally permitted in Zimbabwe.

Conclusion.
If the ConCourt is to confirm the decision of the High Court in Pfungwa, no one, whether a teacher at school or a parent at home would be legally allowed to whip, spank or even pinch a child. This would undoubtedly be a bitter pill to swallow for many. The heavens will fall upon others. Courts are however guided by the Latin maxim; Fiat Justitia Ruat Caelum which means “Let Justice Be Done Though the Heavens May Fall.”

Nyamukondiwa Fidelicy writes in his personal capacity. Contactable on 0785827154/ nhanyams@yahoo.com.


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